FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM


Gonad : Ovary
Genital tract : Uterine tube, Uterus, Vagina
External genitalia : Labia major, Labia minor, Clitoris

* Period

    Puberty: 12-15 ys
    Mature: 16-45 ys
    Menopause: 45-55 ys

OVARY (4 x 2 x 1 Cm)

Germinal epithelium-tunica albuginea

Cortex: reticular fiber network, fibroblasts, smooth m. cell, ovarian follicles
Medulla: loose conn. t. with B.V., lymphatics, nerves

* Ovarian follicles

1. Primordial follicle

    primary oocyte + follicular cell layer ( 1 layer )

2. Primary(Preantral) follicle

    zona pellucida

3. Secondary(Antral) follicle

    Theca interna
    Theca externa

4. Mature Graafian follicle

    Stigma

* Ovulation

* Corpus luteum

    granulosa cell - granulosa lutein cell
    theca interna cell - theca lutein cell

    Corpus luteum of menstration
    Corpus luteum of pregnancy

* Corpus albicans

* Oogenesis

    oogonia - primary oocyte - secondary oocyte (haploid) + 1st polar body
    - mature ovum (fertilization) + 2nd polar body

* Hormones

    estrogen : growing follicle
    progesteron : corpus luteum

    gonadotropin (FSH, LH)

    relaxin : corpus luteum of pregnancy

OVIDUCTS (Uterine tube, Fallopian tube) - (10-12 Cm, 6-8 mm)

Infundibulum: fimbriae
Ampulla: fertilization
Isthmus

Uterine portion (Intramural, Interstitial)

1. Tunica mucosa

    simple columnar epithelium
      ciliated columnar cell
      non-ciliated coumnar cell: secretory cell (peg cell)

    lamina propria
      abundant blood vessel

2. Tunica muscularis

    inner circular
    outer longitudinal

3. Tunica serosa


UTERUS (7 x 5 x 2.5 Cm)

Fundus
Corpus
Cervix

1. Endometrium

    Surface ep. :simple columnar ep. (scattered ciliated cell)
    Uterine gl. :simple branched tubular gland

    Coiled artery

    Functional layer: compact layer, spongy layer
    Basal layer

2. Myometrium (12 - 15 mm)

    inner longitudinal (str. subvasculare)
    middle circular (str. vasculare)
    outer longitudinal (str. supravasculare)

3. Perimetrium

    typical serosa

* Cyclic changes of endometrium

    1) Proliferative (follicular, estrogen) phase: 5-14th day
      straight, uniform diameter glands
    2) Secretory (luteal, progestational) phase: 15-26th day
      glandular cell-swell & secrete profusely serrated glands compact & spongy layer
    3) Premenstrual (ischemic) phase: 27, 28th day
      intermittent constriction of coiled artery
    4) Menstrual phase: 1-4th day
      necrotic endometrium

* Cervix

    epithelium: tall, mucus secreting columnar cell lamina propria: numerous, branching glands (Nabothian follicle)
      no coiled artery
    transition of epithelium: abruptly

* Uterus during pregnancy

      40 gm - 1000 gm

    muscle fiber hypertrophy (smooth M. fiber 40 um - 500 um)
    increase of blood vessel
    increase of elastic fiber
    increase of mitotic division
    thinning of walls

* Chorion

    frondosum(placenta)
    laevae
* Decidua
    basalis(placenta)
    capsularis
    parietalis


VAGINA

    fibromuscular sheath
      mucosa: transverse folds(rugae), epithelial cell-glycogen
      lamina propria: abundant elastic fiber
    muscular layer : inner circular, outer longitudinal
      hymen
      Papanicolaou's smear


EXTERNAL GENITALIA

    Clitoris:

    Labia minor: str. squamous epithelium

      tall papilla, sebaceous gland without hair

    Labia major: inner smooth & hairless

      outer cornified & hair

    (Vestibule-opening of vagina & urethra

      Batholin's glands, minor vestibular gland)


MAMMARY GLAND

cutaneous accessory gland (modified sweat gland)

compound tubuloalveolar gland

    lobes-lactiferous duct
    lobules-interlobular duct
      intralobular duct

* resting, pregnancy, lactating mammary gland

* colostrum

    Ig A

* Hormone

    estrogen, progesteron, prolactin, human placenta lactogen



 

Lecture Note by Kyung Ah Park, M.D., D. med.